This is one of the ultimate goals of reading instruction: get your students to think about their reading. We teach them skills strategies for comprehension and then give them time to practice under our guidance as well as on their own. Readers learn best when they are reading and one way I’ve found that my students start to understand what their brains are doing while they read is to keep a journal.
Many teachers do this. You may ask your students to write down what they are thinking as they read. Sometimes this is done in a journal, a separate piece of paper or on sticky notes. One method I've learned is for readers to write double entries in a journal. For this, students create a two column chart in their journal, titling the left side "Text" and the right side "Reflection." When they come to something in the text that resonates with them, they can take a moment to write down what they read and then what they were thinking. they may also decide to read the passage first and then go back to write in their journals.
We use our reading group times to have a grand conversation about what students have written in their journals. We also take time to look at our reflections and identify them according to reading strategies. Students often make connections in their reflections, but also will ask questions, make predictions, and infer about what they have read. Taking the time to notice these things (and mark them in their journals) can be a helpful way to allow students to understand how they think while they read.