Citing Evidence From The Text: Sentence Stems

Posted by Kristy Beaudry McCain on Mar 3, 2015 7:13:11 AM

Comprehension Strategy: Citing Evidence From The Text

Young smiling student using her laptop in a library

Readers should use textual evidence to support answers when reading informational and nonfiction text.

Textual evidence used to support a position when reading and writing. The evidence is gathered from a text. It may include direct quotes and inferences drawn from the text. Educators can provide students with explicit instruction in this researched based strategy. Using sentence stems is an excellent way to practice citing text evidence with students.

How To Use Sentence Stems When Citing Evidence From The Text

  • Teachers should provide direct instruction on the sentence stems. Educators can read a text aloud and demonstrate citing text evidence with the stems.
  • The stems should be visible to the students. They can be charted, listed on a poster, or placed on the overhead or Smartboard.
  • Students should be provided with a copy of the sentence stems.
  • Students can practice using the stems with a text with guided practice. The teacher can monitor their work during this phase to make certain that they are using the stems correctly.
  • As independent practice, kids can work in pairs using the stems to help them cite textual evidence.

Sentence Stems Used To Cite Evidence From The Text

In paragraph _________the narrator states________

Readers can tell that __________________________

This proves__________________

This demonstrates________________

I feel _________because

I think_________because__________

A causal factor was ________ and it is found on page___

An effect was_________

In the text I found____________

An example is_____________

According to the text___________

The picture shows___________

I know_________because____________

The text says__________

For instance__________

One example from the text is___________

Based on the information_________

The graph indicates___________

According to page ______ of the text_______

This incident provides further proof________

One example from the text is_________

The author wrote__________

In the text it states__________

After reading I know____________

On page_____ it states______________

Based on what I read________________

The graphic showed_____________

nonfiction books

Cite Textual Evidence With Online Books

Readers have the opportunity to enjoy these informational and engaging texts. Sharing these books is an excellent way to get students excited about reading. These books offer a great opportunity to enrich student’s vocabulary and content knowledge. Big Universe offers hundreds of titles in many different languages on thousands of topics. Find these informational and engaging texts


Tom Greve (author)

Firefighters are first responders. When someone calls for help, firefighters will often be the first ones to arrive. With more than 350,000 fires in the United States each year, firefighters must be ready at all times of the day and night to protect and save lives, homes, and land from the devastation a fire causes. The rigorous training, dangerous conditions, equipment, and commitment of these brave individuals are all detailed in this book. Next time you hear the roar of a siren, stop and think about these life-saving heroes who protect us every day! This book will allow students to cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

freeclipart appleConnecting To The Common Core State Standards

The Common Core State Standards clearly outline what is expected of students at each grade level, for students in the United States. The Common Core State Standards can be found at

Key Ideas and Details:


  • Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
  • Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Topics: Classroom Ideas, Big Universe News, Literacy

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